Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are considerably more safe, effective and convenient than vitamin K antagonists (VKA), and require fewer controls and less periodic follow-ups with a more rapid drug onset of effects compared to VKA. As of 2013, DOACs have been preferentially prescribed over warfarin for patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF).
Delayed therapy start and antiretroviral therapy (ART) resistance are two common issues affecting up to 33% and 17% of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), respectively. These patients commonly present with higher viral loads, lower CD4 T-cell count, and complications such as infections requiring acute treatment. For those patients presenting with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or those who have breakthrough HIV, and who present with opportunistic infections and comorbidities requiring hospitalisation, ART treatments are limited.